.10, h2 = .21). Another limitation of this survey is the dependence upon respondents’ ability and willingness accurately to report their objectives in soliciting information. Brown, Jacqueline Johnson and Peter H. Reingen (1987), "Social Times and Word-of-Mouth Referral Behavior," Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (December), 350-362. We may communicate to others that we agree with their viewpoints by mimicking their behaviors, and we tend to get along better with people with whom we are well “coordinated.” We even expect people to mimic us in social interactions, and we become distressed when they do not (Dalton et al., 2010). There are cultural differences that determine the preferred female form. Brent McFerran, Simon Fraser University, Canada, Gabriele Paolacci, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands Celsi, Richard L. and Jerry C. Olson (1988), "The Role of Involvement in Attention and Comprehension Processes," Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (September), 210-224. 1727 Words 7 Pages. The normative-informational distinction may account for these contrasting findings. The prior two decades have seen sporadic research efforts aimed at further clarifying the nature of social influence in a consumer decision context. Recognizing the prevalence of normative social influence in many decision situations, Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) incorporated "subjective norm" into their "Theory of Reasoned Action," developing and validating a measurement approach for this normative construct as an integral component of their behavioral intention model. Despite a recognition that social influence in the marketplace may be either normative (motivated by social norms/rewards) or informational (based on perceived referent expertise), little attention has been paid to differences between the two. Fishbein, Martin and Icek Ajzen (1975), Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Gizem Yalcin, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Nicole Kim, University of Maryland, USA Hypothesis 6 addressed the strength of the consumer-referent relationship from the perspective of frequency of contact (H56a) and incidence of prior advice solicitation (H6b). Levels of involvement and complexity were shown to be greater in informational influence situations than in normative. ABSTRACT - In an investigation of the distinctive characteristics of normative and informational social influence, a survey probed purchase decision, individual difference, and consumer-referent relationship characteristics associated with recent purchase episodes involving advice from others. In their first experiment, students worked on a task with another student, who was actually an experimental confederate. demonstrate conformity, they seem different somehow. On the other hand, informational social influence involves situations where an individual may choose to agree with others, especially the … Lutz, Richard J. and Patrick J. Reilly (1974), "An Exploration of the Effect of Perceived Social and Performance Risk on Consumer Information Acquisition," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Conformity is driven by informational and normative influences. Ajzen, Icek and Martin Fishbein (1980), Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. In a modified replication of Bearden and Etzel’s (1982) study of reference-group influence, Childers and Rao (1992) observed that "the degree to which the product is a luxury appears to be the driving force behind the manifestation of peer influence" (p. 205), while intergenerational familial influence (in the United States) was stronger for necessities than for luxuries; their work did not distinguish between informational and normative influence. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28, 2001     Pages 280-285 DIFFERENCES IN NORMATIVE AND INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE Kenneth R. Lord, Mercer University Myung-Soo Lee, City University of New York Peggy Choong, Niagara University ABSTRACT - In an investigation of the distinctive characteristics of normative and informational social influence, a survey probed purchase decision, individual difference, and consumer-referent relationship characteristics associated with recent purchase episodes involving advice from others. 4. When soldiers obey their commanding officers, they probably do it both because others are doing it (normative conformity) and because they think it is the right thing to do (informational conformity). The fact that such implicit heterogeneity of variance did not attenuate the significance of the differences between the three social influence categories, however, speaks to the reality of the observed differences. Robert S. Hancock, Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association, 389-398. In some situations normative influence may occur where individuals associate with complete strangers. In this lesson, we discuss the two types of social conformity and differentiate between conformity and obedience. The resulting data set contained 74 incidents of social influence (a few respondents reported only one purchase situation). Hence the type of influence was treated as a three-level variable (normative, informational, both), based on the coding of two independent judges. Both behaviors involve pressure and influence but certain characteristics allow differentiation of one from the other. One item in the LOV scale, the perceived importance of "warm relationships with others," was characterized by the highest level of respondent-referent dissimilarity when social influence was informational (mean difference of 1.10), with the difference in the normative category only directionally lower (.83) and that in the combined category significantly lower (.50). Whether it is due to normative or informational social influence, groups have power to influence individuals. Or when a person is in an ambiguous (i.e. Brown and Reingen (1987) found that "strong ties," defined in part as those characterized by high contact frequency, are more likely than weak ties to serve as a conduit for the transfer of purchase-relevant information. (1960), "Consumer Behavior as Risk Taking," in Dynamic Marketing for a Changing World, ed. LaTour, Stephen A. and Ajay K. Manrai (1989), "Interactive Impact of Informational and Normative Influence on Donations," Journal of Marketing Research, 26 (August), 327-335. INTRODUCTION Despite a recognition that social influence in the marketplace may be either normative (motivated by social norms/rewards) or informational (based on perceived referent expertise), little attention has been paid to differences between the two. Rather than creating the behavior to be mimicked, in this study the confederate imitated the behaviors of the participant. The changes were in conformity with the law.. In an investigation of the distinctive characteristics of normative and informational social influence, a survey probed purchase decision, individual difference, and consumer-referent relationship characteristics associated with recent purchase episodes involving advice from others. There is thus little evidence in this data set of differences in homophily/heterophily between normative and social influence. To avoid self-report bias, to enhance internal validity and to reduce heterogeneity of variance, a follow-up study could productively adopt an experimental approach, in which subjects role play decisions, product categories are held constant across subjects, and relevant independent variables (e.g., homophily) are experimentally manipulated. Since the variable for which significant respondent-referent differences emerged dealt with subjective value perceptions, a determination of whether differences in heterophily/homophily are real or only perceived must await further research. Brinberg and Plimpton (1986) found a relationship between consumption and conspicuousness and value-expressive influence. Start studying Social: Normative & Informational Social Influence. Full reference section is below. Homans, George (1961), Social Behavior: Its Elemental Forms, New York: Harcourt. Since, however, the major effect of such a bias would presumably be to mask actual differences between social influence categories because of constrained variance, it seems unlikely that such a bias could provide a plausible alternative explanation for the significant results obtained in support of the other hypotheses. 1. Normative influence refers to the fact that people sometimes change their behavior, thoughts, or values to be liked and accepted by others. Informational influence is conformity under acceptance of evidence about reality which has been provided by others (Myers, 2009). Kahle, Lynn R., Sharon E. Beatty, and Pamela Homer (1986), "Alternative Measurement Approaches to Consumer Values: The List of Values (LOV) and Values and Life Styles (VALS)," Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (December), 405-409. Have questions or comments? Increases in the size of the majority increase conformity regardless of whether the conformity is informational or normative. 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This is most widely known as peer pressure. In terms of informational conformity, if more people express an opinion, their opinions seem more valid. Value-expressive influence is characterized by a need for psychological association with a group through the acceptance of its norms, values and behavior. (While the impracticality of a lonitudinal design precluded measurement of the constructs before the social-influence incidents they affected, these variables are assumed to be sufficiently stable to allow an inference that hypothesis-consistent results indicate their existence antecedent to that influence.). However, behaviors that are originally performed out of a desire to be accepted (normative conformity) may frequently produce changes in beliefs to match them, and the result becomes private acceptance. Mary C. Gilly and Joan Meyers-Levy, Valdosta, GA : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 280-285. At the individual level, pivotal factors leading to normative influence are the desire to form a good impression and the fear of embarrassment. Conformity is driven by informational and normative influences. Conformance is a related term of conformity. In such cases, due to mutual fear for each other, an individual may naturally try to agree with the rest in order to avoid appearing as contradictory or controversial. Rebecca Ratner, University of Maryland, USA. Conformity may appear in our public behavior even though we may believe something completely different in private. Difference Between Conformity And Non Conformity. The work of Brown and Reingen (1987), cited earlier, established that "of an individual’s potential personal sources of information, the more homophilous the tie, the more likely it is activated for the flow of referral" (p.354), but did not address the issue of potential differences between normative and informational influence. 21.3: Normative Conformity- Conforming To Be Liked And To Avoid Rejection, [ "article:topic", "license:ccbyncsa", "authorname:kvotaw" ], https://socialsci.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fsocialsci.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FPsychology%2FBook%253A_General_Psychology_for_Honors_Students_(Votaw)%2F21%253A_The_Many_Varieties_of_Conformity%2F21.03%253A_Normative_Conformity-_Conforming_To_Be_Liked_And_To_Avoid_Rejection, Assistant Teaching Professor & Undergraduate Research Coordinator (Music Studies), 21.2: Informational Conformity- Conforming To Be Accurate, 21.4: Majority Influence- Conforming To The Group. When we engage in normative conformity we conform to social norms—socially accepted beliefs about what we do or should do in particular social contexts (Cialdini, 1993; Sherif, 1936; Sumner, 1906). These expectations lead to the following hypothesis: H6: Relative to referents solicited for informational purposes, normative referents will be characterized by: b. ", Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28, 2001     Pages 280-285, DIFFERENCES IN NORMATIVE AND INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE, Myung-Soo Lee, City University of New York. Differentiate between informational and normative social pressures to conform. Alternatively, there is no reason to expect any consistent or systematic social/demographic similarity among consumers and those referents sought out because of their superior knowledge, experience or expertise. From a strategic perspective, the effective management of social influence requires an understanding of the type of social influence likely to prevail under different purchase decisions or situational conditions and the identification of individuals best positioned to exert such an influence. Normative social influence comes from a desire to be in agreement with the expectations of others in order to increase feelings such as belonging and self­ esteem. Conspicuousness, contact and advice solicitation frequency, and consumer-referent homophily with respect to the value attached to warm relationships were greater when normative influence was involved. Perhaps you know someone who started smoking to please his friends but soon convinced himself that it was an acceptable thing to do. Researchers have categorized the motivation to conform into two types: normative social influence and informational social influence (Deutsch & Gerard, 1955). Imitation is an important part of social interaction. A popular conceptualization of reference group influence views that form of social influence as being most pervasive for "public" as opposed to "private" goods (Bearden and Etzel 1982), but does not differentiate between informational and normative influence. Assael, Henry (1987), Consumer Behavior and Marketing Action, Boston: Kent. 3. It is said that imitation is a form of flattery, and we might therefore expect that we would like people who imitate us. Myung-Soo Lee, City University of New York We also discuss two famous experiments by Solomon Asch and Stanley Milgram. Normative is an antonym of informative. This is perhaps because they are likely to coexist in the same sources; e.g., family members and friends both establish a value system (value expressive) and mediate rewards/punishments for compliance/noncompliance with its norms and values (normative). 2. The individual likes or admires the reference group and attempts to mimic it. Like the studies cited above, and more recently Mascarenhas and Higby (1993), the present research treats social influence dichotomously, comparing informational with a combined normative/value-expressive construct. The intent of this research effort is to explain and empirically demonstrate the distinctive characteristics of normative and informational social influence with respect to decision, individual difference, and consumer-referent relationship variables. Peggy Choong, Niagara University, NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28 | 2001, Thomas Allard, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore The two worked together to discuss photographs taken from current magazines. We may obey the speed limit or wear a uniform to our job (behavior) to conform to social norms and requirements, even though we may not necessarily believe that it is appropriate to do so (opinion). Contrary to their expectations, however, they also discovered that weak ties were more likely to be actively sought out explicitly for such information. Conspicuousness, contact and advice solicitation frequency, and consumer-referent homophily with respect to the value attached to warm relationships were greater when normative influence was involved. The desire for social acceptance is very powerful in a wide range of situations and explains why people are typically quite uncomfortable if they think others currently reject them or are likely to do so in the future. And when the experimenters asked the participants if they had noticed anything unusual about the behavior of the other person during the experiment, none of them indicated awareness of any face rubbing or foot shaking. Brinberg, David and Linda Plimpton (1986), "Self-Monitoring and Product Conspicuousness on Reference Group Influence," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Such an objective is seemingly more consistent with informational social influence than with a normative focus on social rewards or conformity. Involvement (or degree of personal relevance) has been shown to be positively related to external search and cognitive processing of decision-relevant stimuli, apparently motivated by an attempt to increase the effectiveness of alternative evaluation (cf. Informational influence refers to the provision of credible evidence of reality (Burnkrant and Cousineau 1975). In most purchase categories, the extent to which the purchase and/or usage of a product or service is seen by others does not relate directly to the functional benefits it delivers to the use, but may elicit judgments on the part of social observers. Alternatively, a heterophilous tie is one in which the two individuals manifest substantial differences on such relevant dimensions. We may use drugs with our friends without really wanting to, and without believing it is really right, because our friends are all using drugs. Some have explored referent or product effects on social influence without regard to influence type (informational or normative). The greatest normative influence is usually exerted within primary reference groups such as the immediate family (Cooley 1962). Normative conformity occurs when we express opinions or behave in ways that help us to be accepted or that keep us from being isolated or rejected by others. normative influence conformity= leads to public compliance, ex: line judgment study informational social influence conformity= leads to private attitude change, ex: autokinetic effect study This unconscious conformity may help explain why we hit it off immediately with some people and never get it together with others (Chartrand & Dalton, 2009; Tickle-Degnen & Rosenthal, 1990, 1992). There are two types of conformity, normative conformity, and informational conformity. Indeed, a consumer’s need to access purchase-relevant expertise that s/he does not personally possess would potentially lead to the solicitation of information and advice from persons not only different from the consumer her/himself, but different from referents contacted for other purchases (e.g., legal and landscaping expertise may reside in substantially different individuals). As a starting point, it would be appropriate to replicate this study, using a larger and more representative sample. By drawing on recent developments in computational models of decision-making under uncertainty, we propose an account of how informational influences affect conformity behaviour. Bauer, Raymond A. We easily and frequently mimic others without being aware that we are doing so. In addition to the role of similarity between consumer and referent, the frequency of contact has been shown to relate to social influence. Assael 1987). Levels of involvement and complexity were shown to be greater in informational influence situations than in normative. H3: Purchase situations involving normative social influence will be characterized by higher levels of product or service conspicuousness than those involving informational influence. As you can see in Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\), the participants who had been mimicked liked the other person more and indicated that they thought the interaction had gone more smoothly, in comparison with the participants who had not been imitated. Give two examples of normative influence. A consumer seeking normative rewards will likely seek out the mediators of such rewards, commonly members of peer, reference, or other associational groups with whom s/he has regular contact. As nouns the difference between conformance and conformity is that conformance is the act of conforming; conformity while conformity is state of things being similar, or identical. Having completed the latter battery of questions for each referent, the respondent completed the same psychographic and demographic measures relative to himself or herself. However, the very nature of the scale items (concerned with behavior which "makes me fit in" or may elicit "disapproval") and the assumption that sensitivity to social comparison information is "motivated by such factors as a fear of negative social evaluation" point to normative as the type of social influence that would be driven primarily by this individual-difference factor. These researchers did not concern themselves explicitly with the distinction between normative and informational social influence. Analyses of reported differences between the two parties with respect to the demographic and psychographic variables identified in the earlier description of the measurement instrument yielded only one significant difference in means or proportions between social influence categories (F2,71 = 3.06, p < .05, h2 = .08). Explain the differences between informative conformity and normative conformity Summarize the conformity study performed by Solomon Asch and its impact on social psychology Describe why more modern studies may have found different results from Asch’s study Whereas informational influences serve to acquire adequate representations of reality, normative influences aim at preserving intact social relations. The pattern of results emerging from these tests is thus consistent with H6. A homophilous tie is one in which the consumer and the referent possess shared characteristics with respect to values, lifestyles, demographics, etc. Product complexity in informational social influence scenarios (and those involving both informational and normative) exceeded that observed in decisions involving exclusively normative influence (2.36, 2.50 and 1.50, respectively). Fundamental to the distinct nature of the two influence types is the issue of whether the consumer’s overriding concern is with the achievement of desired product/service-relevant (informational) or relationship (normative) outcomes. Groupthink is the modification of the opinions of members of a group to align with what they believe is the group consensus (Janis, 1972). The ATSCI scale index (mean of the scale’s thirteen items) failed to yield the hypothesized significant differences between groups (F2,71 = 1.58, p > .10, h2 = .21). Another limitation of this survey is the dependence upon respondents’ ability and willingness accurately to report their objectives in soliciting information. Brown, Jacqueline Johnson and Peter H. Reingen (1987), "Social Times and Word-of-Mouth Referral Behavior," Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (December), 350-362. We may communicate to others that we agree with their viewpoints by mimicking their behaviors, and we tend to get along better with people with whom we are well “coordinated.” We even expect people to mimic us in social interactions, and we become distressed when they do not (Dalton et al., 2010). There are cultural differences that determine the preferred female form. Brent McFerran, Simon Fraser University, Canada, Gabriele Paolacci, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands Celsi, Richard L. and Jerry C. Olson (1988), "The Role of Involvement in Attention and Comprehension Processes," Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (September), 210-224. 1727 Words 7 Pages. The normative-informational distinction may account for these contrasting findings. The prior two decades have seen sporadic research efforts aimed at further clarifying the nature of social influence in a consumer decision context. Recognizing the prevalence of normative social influence in many decision situations, Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) incorporated "subjective norm" into their "Theory of Reasoned Action," developing and validating a measurement approach for this normative construct as an integral component of their behavioral intention model. Despite a recognition that social influence in the marketplace may be either normative (motivated by social norms/rewards) or informational (based on perceived referent expertise), little attention has been paid to differences between the two. Fishbein, Martin and Icek Ajzen (1975), Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Gizem Yalcin, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Nicole Kim, University of Maryland, USA Hypothesis 6 addressed the strength of the consumer-referent relationship from the perspective of frequency of contact (H56a) and incidence of prior advice solicitation (H6b). Levels of involvement and complexity were shown to be greater in informational influence situations than in normative. ABSTRACT - In an investigation of the distinctive characteristics of normative and informational social influence, a survey probed purchase decision, individual difference, and consumer-referent relationship characteristics associated with recent purchase episodes involving advice from others. In their first experiment, students worked on a task with another student, who was actually an experimental confederate. demonstrate conformity, they seem different somehow. On the other hand, informational social influence involves situations where an individual may choose to agree with others, especially the … Lutz, Richard J. and Patrick J. Reilly (1974), "An Exploration of the Effect of Perceived Social and Performance Risk on Consumer Information Acquisition," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Conformity is driven by informational and normative influences. Ajzen, Icek and Martin Fishbein (1980), Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. In a modified replication of Bearden and Etzel’s (1982) study of reference-group influence, Childers and Rao (1992) observed that "the degree to which the product is a luxury appears to be the driving force behind the manifestation of peer influence" (p. 205), while intergenerational familial influence (in the United States) was stronger for necessities than for luxuries; their work did not distinguish between informational and normative influence. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28, 2001     Pages 280-285 DIFFERENCES IN NORMATIVE AND INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE Kenneth R. Lord, Mercer University Myung-Soo Lee, City University of New York Peggy Choong, Niagara University ABSTRACT - In an investigation of the distinctive characteristics of normative and informational social influence, a survey probed purchase decision, individual difference, and consumer-referent relationship characteristics associated with recent purchase episodes involving advice from others. 4. When soldiers obey their commanding officers, they probably do it both because others are doing it (normative conformity) and because they think it is the right thing to do (informational conformity). The fact that such implicit heterogeneity of variance did not attenuate the significance of the differences between the three social influence categories, however, speaks to the reality of the observed differences. Robert S. Hancock, Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association, 389-398. In some situations normative influence may occur where individuals associate with complete strangers. In this lesson, we discuss the two types of social conformity and differentiate between conformity and obedience. The resulting data set contained 74 incidents of social influence (a few respondents reported only one purchase situation). Hence the type of influence was treated as a three-level variable (normative, informational, both), based on the coding of two independent judges. Both behaviors involve pressure and influence but certain characteristics allow differentiation of one from the other. One item in the LOV scale, the perceived importance of "warm relationships with others," was characterized by the highest level of respondent-referent dissimilarity when social influence was informational (mean difference of 1.10), with the difference in the normative category only directionally lower (.83) and that in the combined category significantly lower (.50). Whether it is due to normative or informational social influence, groups have power to influence individuals. Or when a person is in an ambiguous (i.e. Brown and Reingen (1987) found that "strong ties," defined in part as those characterized by high contact frequency, are more likely than weak ties to serve as a conduit for the transfer of purchase-relevant information. (1960), "Consumer Behavior as Risk Taking," in Dynamic Marketing for a Changing World, ed. LaTour, Stephen A. and Ajay K. Manrai (1989), "Interactive Impact of Informational and Normative Influence on Donations," Journal of Marketing Research, 26 (August), 327-335. INTRODUCTION Despite a recognition that social influence in the marketplace may be either normative (motivated by social norms/rewards) or informational (based on perceived referent expertise), little attention has been paid to differences between the two. Rather than creating the behavior to be mimicked, in this study the confederate imitated the behaviors of the participant. The changes were in conformity with the law.. In an investigation of the distinctive characteristics of normative and informational social influence, a survey probed purchase decision, individual difference, and consumer-referent relationship characteristics associated with recent purchase episodes involving advice from others. There is thus little evidence in this data set of differences in homophily/heterophily between normative and social influence. To avoid self-report bias, to enhance internal validity and to reduce heterogeneity of variance, a follow-up study could productively adopt an experimental approach, in which subjects role play decisions, product categories are held constant across subjects, and relevant independent variables (e.g., homophily) are experimentally manipulated. Since the variable for which significant respondent-referent differences emerged dealt with subjective value perceptions, a determination of whether differences in heterophily/homophily are real or only perceived must await further research. Brinberg and Plimpton (1986) found a relationship between consumption and conspicuousness and value-expressive influence. Start studying Social: Normative & Informational Social Influence. Full reference section is below. Homans, George (1961), Social Behavior: Its Elemental Forms, New York: Harcourt. Since, however, the major effect of such a bias would presumably be to mask actual differences between social influence categories because of constrained variance, it seems unlikely that such a bias could provide a plausible alternative explanation for the significant results obtained in support of the other hypotheses. 1. Normative influence refers to the fact that people sometimes change their behavior, thoughts, or values to be liked and accepted by others. Informational influence is conformity under acceptance of evidence about reality which has been provided by others (Myers, 2009). Kahle, Lynn R., Sharon E. Beatty, and Pamela Homer (1986), "Alternative Measurement Approaches to Consumer Values: The List of Values (LOV) and Values and Life Styles (VALS)," Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (December), 405-409. Have questions or comments? Increases in the size of the majority increase conformity regardless of whether the conformity is informational or normative.

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